The page discussing the Typical Usage of git may be of assistance when you are trying to figure out how to use these commands.
Show what changed in your working files between the last commit and now.
Adds changes to a staging area. You can build a larger commit this way. One must use
Add changes to your repository's history. If no files are specified, you are committing everything that was staged using
First does a fetch then does a merge on current branch. This will be one of the more often used commands. The fetch and merge commands are described a bit more below.
Takes your history and pushes it into a remote repository. If you get an error doing this, you probably don't have the remote's history in your own and the usual fix would be to use
Pulls in changes from a remote repository. If none is specified, it will fetch history from "origin".
Merges your change history with another change history.
Lists all branches on local repository. When you use
Takes a commit and puts it into another branch. Using
Gets a list of commits and their messages. If you add
Records the changes you've made but have not yet committed. Returns the files back to their original state. Stashes are a good way to save your progress but not commit files, and is useful if you are switching branches or pulling in history from another source.
Applies the most recent or a specific set of changes you've saved back to your working copy of files. Using apply will still keep the stash saved too; they won't be removed from your list of stashes.